The ESS has been cited in several thousand published reports from investigations around the world. Only the references that have been cited in this document are listed below.

Anderson B, Storfer-Isser, A, Taylor H G, Rosen C L ,Redline S. Associations of executive function with sleepiness and sleep duration in adolescents. Pediatrics, 2009; 123: e701-707.

Anderson C, Chang A-M, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. Assessment of drowsiness based on ocular parameters detected by infrared reflectance oculography. J Clin Sleep Med 2013; 13: 907-920.

Broderick JE, Junghaenel DU, Schneider S, Pilosi JJ, Stone AA. Pittsburgh and Epworth Sleep Scale items: accuracy of ratings across different reporting periods. Behav Sleep Med, 2013; 11: 173-188.

Broughton RJ, Flemming JAE, George CFP, Hill JD, Kryger MH, Moldofsky H, Monplaisir JY, Moorehouse RL, Moscovitch A, Murphy WF. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Neurology, 1997; 49: 444-451.

Campbell I G, Higgins L M, Trinidad J M, Richardson P, Feinberg I. The increase in longitudinally measured sleepiness across adolescence is related to the maturational decline in low-frequency EEG power. Sleep, 2007; 30: 1677-1687.

Chan EY, Ng DK, Chan CH, Kwok KL, Chow PY, Cheung JM, Leung SY. Modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Chinese children with obstructive sleep apnea: a retrospective study. Sleep Breath, 2009; 13: 59-63.

Chervin RD, Pickett R, Guillemenault C. Comparison of Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Multiple Sleep Latency Test results. Sleep Res, 1995; 24: 466.

Cho YW, Lee JH, Son HK, Lee SH, Shin C, Johns MW. The reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep Breath, 2011; 15: 377-384.

Choi K, Son H, Park M, Han J, Kim K, Lee B, Gwak H. Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Psychiat Clin Neurosci, 2009; 63: 455-462.

Chung K-F, Cheung M-M. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Sleep, 2008; 31:185-194.

Danner F, Phillips B. Adolescent sleep, school start times, and teen motor vehicle crashes. J Clin Sleep Med, 2008; 15: 533-535.

Gibson E S, Powles AC P, Thabane L, O’Brien S, Molnar D S, Trajanovic N, Ogilvie R, Shapiro C, Yan M, Chilcott-Tanser L. “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Pub Health, 2006; 6: 116, 1-9.

Guilleminault C, Partinen M, Quera-Salva MA, Hayes B, Dement W, Nino-Purcia G. Determinants of daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. Chest, 1988; 94: 32-37.

Hagell P, Broman JE. Measurement properties and hierarchical item structure of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Parkinson’s disease. J Sleep Res, 2007; 16: 102-109.

dinge FM, Pitson DJ, Stradling JR. Use of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to demonstrate response to treatment with nasal continuous positive airways pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apea. Respir Med, 1995; 89: 617-620.

Izci B, Ardic S, Firat H, Sahin A, Altinors M, Karacan I. Reliability and validity studies of the Turkish version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep Breath, 2008; 12: 161-168.

James JE, Kristjánsson ÁL, Sigfúsdottir ID. Adolesecnt substance use, sleep, and academic achievement: evidence of harm due to caffeine. J Adolesc, 2011; 34:665-673.

Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep, 1991; 14: 50-55.

Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep, 1992; 15: 376-381.

Johns MW. Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep, 1994; 17: 703-710.

Johns M, Hocking B. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers. Sleep, 1997; 20: 844-849.

Johns MW. Rethinking the assessment of sleepiness. Sleep Med Rev, 1998; 2: 3-15.

Johns MW. Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and the Epworth sleepiness scale: failure of the MSLT as a gold standard. J Sleep Res, 2000(b); 9: 5-11.

Johns MW. A sleep physiologist’s view of the drowsy driver, Pergamon, Transport research part F, 2000a, pp. 241-249.

Johns MW. Sleep propensity varies with behaviour and the situation in which it is measured: the concept of somnificity. J Sleep Res, 2002; 11: 61-67.

Johns MW. The clinical assessment of daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In: Surgery for Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Edit. M Fabiani, Kugler Publications, The Hague, 2003, pp. 283-295.

Johns MW, Chapman R, Crowley K, Tucker A. A new method for assessing the risks of drowsiness while driving. Somnologie, 2008; 12: 66-74.

Johns MW. What is excessive daytime sleepiness? In: Sleep deprivation: Causes, Effects and Treatment. Editors, P Fulke and S Vaughan, Nova Science Inc, New York, 2009, pp. 59-94.

Johns MW. A new perspective on sleepiness. Sleep Biol Rhythm, 2010; 8: 170-179.

Johns M. The assessment of sleepiness in children and adolescents. Sleep Biol Rhythm, 2015; 13 (Suppl 1): 97 (Powerpoint PDF).

Joo S, Shin, C, Kim J, Yi H, Ahn Y, Park M, Kim J, Lee S. Prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in high school students in Korea. Psychiat Clin Neurosci, 2005; 59: 433-440.

Kilgore WDS, Vanuk JR, Knight SA, Markowski SM, Pisner D, Shane B, Fridman A, Alkozei A. Daytime sleepiness is associated with altered resting thalamocortical connectivity. NeuroReport, 2015; 26: 779-784.

Mihăicută S, Ardelean C, Ursoniu S, Frent S. Excessive daytime somnolence as a predictor for sleep apnea syndrome- a multivariate analysis. J Cog Behav Psychother, 2013; 13: 183-195.

Mairesse O, Neu D. Tired of blunt tools? Sharpening the clinical assessment of fatigue and sleepiness. Psychiat Res, 2016; 238: 100-108.

Manni R, Politin L, Ratti MT, Tartara A. Sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and simple snoring evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. J Sleep Res, 1999; 8: 319-320.

Melendres M C S, Lutz J M, Rubin E D, Marcus C L. Daytime sleepiness and hyperactivity in children with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. Pediatrics, 2004; 114: 768-775.

Moore M, Kirchner L, Drotar D, Johnson N, Rosen C, Ancoli-Israel S, Redline S. Relationships among sleepiness, sleep time, and psychological functioning in adolescents. J Ped Psychol, 2009; 34: 1175-1183.

Müller HL, Handwerker G, Wollny B, Faldum A, Sörensen N. Melatonin secretion and increased daytime sleepiness in childhood craniopharyngioma patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2002; 87: 3993-3996.

Parkes J D, Chen S Y, Clift S J, Dahlitz M T, Dunn G. The clinical diagnosis of the narcoleptic syndrome. J Sleep Res, 1998; 7: 41-52.

Sanford SD, Lichstein KL, Durrence HH, Riedel BW, Taylor DJ, Bush AJ. The influence of age, gender, ethnicity, and insomnia on Epworth sleepiness scores: a normative US population. Sleep Med 2006; 7: 319-326.

Sargento P, Perea V, Ladera V, Lopes P, Oliveira J. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Portuguese adults: from classical measurement theory to Rasch model analysis. Sleep Breath, 2015; 19: 693-701.

Shin C, Kim J, Lee S, Ahn Y, Joo S. Sleep habits, excessive daytime sleepiness and school performance in high school students. Psychiat Clin Neurosci, 2003; 57: 451-453.

Snow A, Gozal E, Malhotra A, Tiosano D, Perlman R, Vega C, Shahar E, Gozal D, Hochberg Z, Pillar G. Severe hypersomnolence after pituitary/hypothalamic surgery in adolescents: clinical characteristics and potential mechanisms. Pediatrics, 2002; 110:e74.

Storfer-Isser A, Lebourgeois MK, Harsh J, Tompsett CJ, Redline S. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. J Sleep Res, 2013; 22: 707-716.

Van der Heide A, van Schie MKM, Lammers GJ, Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mayer G, Bassetti CL, Ding C-L, Lehert P, van Dijk JG. Comparing treatment effect measurements in narcolepsy: The Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. Sleep, 2015; 28: 1051-1058.